Annie Miller

annie miller
Portrait of Annie Miller by Dante Gabriel Rossetti


Jan Marsh briefly describes Annie Miller’s childhood in Pre-Raphaelite Sisterhood (not associated with this website) as horribly poor and unhygienic, saying that a neighbor had described Annie and her sister as “dirty and covered with vermin”…and that Annie’s hair was particularly “wild and filthy”.  Annie’s mother had died some time after her birth, leaving Annie and her sister to be raised by their father, an ex-soldier. Later, when his health declined, the girls lived with their uncle and aunt — a poor couple who made their meager livings as a cobbler and a washerwoman.

Artist William Holman Hunt was the first to use Annie as a model. It is possible that he had seen her grow up in the streets.

The Awakening Conscience

Annie first appears in The Awakening Conscience (previous post about this painting). We can no longer see her face in it, though, as Holman Hunt repainted it after their relationship soured.

Perhaps Hunt viewed himself as her rescuer, scooping her up from the slums and giving her a new life. Stepping up the social ladder was not easy in Victorian England. Speech, manners, and social skills were impediments that would forever keep you from the desired inner sanctum of the higher classes. Hunt arranged lessons for Annie to improve her deportment. He had discovered a young, poor beauty and rescued her from poverty like a knight in shining armor. Did he truly love her – or was he in love with his role as her savior? He was the man who immortalized her on canvas and made her education possible. And who knows what her feelings were? In that era, love was not the first priority if the opportunity to make a good match arose. But we can not judge either party with our modern eyes. They lived in a time where the social structure was completely foreign to our own and womens’ needs were vastly different.

Hunt’s desire was to travel to the Middle East to paint scenes from the Bible in an authentic setting – leaving Annie alone to continue her education.  Hunt’s plan was that Annie would be the faithful, dutiful, good girl and he would return from his travels to find her  suitable for marriage. However,  they were never formally engaged.

Absence may make the heart grow fonder, but it did nothing to strengthen Annie Miller’s love — if indeed she was in love with Holman Hunt.


Annie continued to sit for other artists (with Hunt’s permission) while he was away. He had made a list of acceptable artists to sit for. Not on the list? Dante Gabriel Rossetti (whom she sat for) and George Boyce (who she also sat for).  Apparently, Annie had a mind of her own.

Hunt did not propose to Annie after he returned. In fact, he did not seem to be concerned with her at all. He was aware that Annie had been seen out socially with different men during his travels, including both the Rossetti brothers (Dante Gabriel & William Michael) and the aforementioned George Boyce.  He seemed somewhat ambivalent towards her, at times referring to himself as her “guardian”.  Rossetti’s attentions  did seem to somewhat renew his interest (as well as anger Elizabeth Siddal).

Hunt convinced Annie to attend a school, after much discussion and cajoling. It seems that Hunt and Annie argued a great deal, usually about money and her bookkeeping. He described her often as ‘willful’. He had invested – and continued to invest – a great deal of time and money into Annie’s education. He even approached George Boyce and requested that Boyce give him the portrait that he had painted of Annie — saying that he wanted to marry Annie after her “education of both her mind and manners” was completed and he wanted to “destroy as far as was possible all traces of her former occupation.” In other words, he wanted to erase or “clean up” her past and destroy evidence that she had ever sat for any other artist.

Annie as Helen of Troy, painted by Dante Gabriel Rossetti


Hunt and Annie never married and due to their constant rifts,  it is difficult to say what exactly caused them to break off the relationship. At some point in time, Annie met and became friendly with Lord Ranelagh, who was probably much more exciting than the solid William Holman Hunt.

Hunt was very controlling of Annie’s finances (she had to call upon him several times to pay her landlady). But when Annie suggested that she could train to be a milliner, Hunt rejected the idea. Eventually, ties between them were severed.

After Rossetti’s wife died, Annie posed for Rossetti as Helen of Troy (see this post) and Woman in Yellow. She was in a relationship with Captain Thompson (cousin to the previously mentioned Lord Ranelagh). They married on July 23, 1863. The couple had children — Annie Helen (1866) and Thomas James (1867). If there were more, I have not found a record. Hunt married his wife, Fanny, who appears in his painting Isabella and the pot of Basil. She died soon after.

From a difficult Victorian childhood of poverty to posing as the face who launched a thousand ships as Helen of Troy. Annie may have had a rocky relationship with William Holman Hunt, but in the end she stood her ground and lived life on her own terms. Well, as much as any woman in her circumstances could in such a stifling time period.

Annie Miller in Dante Gabriel Rossetti's painting 'Woman in Yellow'
Annie Miller in Dante Gabriel Rossetti’s painting ‘Woman in Yellow’
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6 Replies to “Annie Miller”

  1. There’s not much written about Annie, is there? Other than Jan Marsh’s Pre-Raphaelite Sisterhood I have not found much written material about her, other than brief mentions in other books. Loved this post.

    This is one of my favorite websites! It’s so beautiful! And through you, I’ve discovered a lot of other great webpages. Thanks for sharing so many related links in all of your posts.

  2. Thanks for the compliment. I try to share as many links as I find because I’m on the same search everyone else is! I enjoy reading about and discussing the Pre-Raphaelites and I see sharing other sites as a part of that.

    I’ve never heard of a full length bio of Annie Miller, but that may be that there is not a great deal of information to use. Or at least, not close to the amount of information about Jane Morris or Elizabeth Siddal. But even that can be scant at times because quite often the Pre-Raphaelite women are discussed only in relation to their male counterparts. Without Rossetti, Morris, or Holman Hunt we wouldn’t not even know that Lizzie Siddal, Jane Morris, Annie Miller or any of the other models existed.

  3. Very interesting site. My great grandmother Lilian Deverson (Melhuish- she seems to have been adopted) sat for Holman Hunt and her image apparently appears in a stained glass window.
    She was also from a poor Victorian family living just off the Kings Road. She was a considered a beauty with long auburn hair. She visited other painters, including Whistler, when she was a child. We do not know the name of any paintings or the location of the stained glass window.

    1. That’s wonderful, Dawn. I wish you had an idea of the window’s location or the name of the paintings so that you could see them! Thanks so much for commenting. I’ll do some digging and see if I can find anything related to Lilian Deverson.

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